CBSE Class 10 Science Notes & Important Questions Chapter 3 Metals and Non-metals

CBSE Class 10 Science Notes & Important Questions Chapter 3 Metals and Non-metals

CBSE Class 10 Science Notes & Important Questions Chapter 3 Metals and Non-metals

Chapter 3 – Metals and Non-metals, is a part of CBSE Class 10 Science syllabus, which covers topics such as physical and chemical properties of metals and non-metals, occurrence and extraction of metals, reactivity series, and corrosion.

Here’s an outline of the topics covered in this chapter:

  1. Physical Properties of Metals and Non-metals
  2. Chemical Properties of Metals and Non-metals
  3. Occurrence of Metals
  4. Extraction of Metals
  5. Reactivity Series of Metals
  6. Corrosion and its Prevention

Here are some important notes and questions for CBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 3 – Metals and Non-metals:

Notes:

  1. Metals are elements that are typically shiny, malleable, ductile and good conductors of heat and electricity.
  2. Non-metals, on the other hand, are generally poor conductors of heat and electricity, brittle and have low melting and boiling points.
  3. Physical properties like melting and boiling points, hardness, density, etc. help us distinguish between metals and non-metals.
  4. The reactivity series is a list of metals arranged in order of decreasing reactivity. It helps us predict the reactivity of a metal with other substances.
  5. Metals occur in nature in the form of ores. Ores are minerals that contain a high percentage of a particular metal.
  6. Extraction of metals from their ores involves various processes like crushing, grinding, roasting, smelting, refining, etc.
  7. Corrosion is the process of metal being eaten away by chemical reactions with oxygen and moisture. Corrosion can be prevented by using coatings, galvanization, sacrificial protection, etc.

Important Questions:

  1. What are the physical properties of metals and non-metals? How are they different from each other?
  2. What is the reactivity series of metals? How is it useful in predicting the reactivity of metals?
  3. Explain the process of extraction of metals from their ores.
  4. Why do metals corrode? How can corrosion be prevented?
  5. Give an example of each of the following:

a) A metal that is a good conductor of electricity b) A non-metal that is a good conductor of electricity c) A metal that is soft and can be cut with a knife d) A non-metal that is ductile

  1. Name two metals which are extracted by the electrolytic reduction process.
  2. Write the chemical equation of the reaction that takes place when iron reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid.
  3. Why do we apply a coating of zinc on iron? Explain with the help of an example.
  4. Write the name and formula of the product formed when magnesium reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid.
  5. What are the uses of metals and non-metals in our daily lives?

Here are some notes for CBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 3 – Metals and Non-metals:

  1. Metals are elements that are typically shiny, malleable, ductile and good conductors of heat and electricity.
  2. Non-metals, on the other hand, are generally poor conductors of heat and electricity, brittle and have low melting and boiling points.
  3. Physical properties like melting and boiling points, hardness, density, etc. help us distinguish between metals and non-metals.
  4. The reactivity series is a list of metals arranged in order of decreasing reactivity. It helps us predict the reactivity of a metal with other substances.
  5. Metals occur in nature in the form of ores. Ores are minerals that contain a high percentage of a particular metal.
  6. Extraction of metals from their ores involves various processes like crushing, grinding, roasting, smelting, refining, etc.
  7. Corrosion is the process of metal being eaten away by chemical reactions with oxygen and moisture. Corrosion can be prevented by using coatings, galvanization, sacrificial protection, etc.
  8. Metals have many uses in our daily lives, such as in construction, electrical wiring, transportation, etc.
  9. Non-metals like carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen have important roles in biological processes.
  10. The properties of metalloids, elements that exhibit both metallic and non-metallic properties, lie between those of metals and non-metals.

It’s important for students to understand these concepts thoroughly and practice the questions provided in the NCERT textbook to score well in the CBSE Class 10 Science exam.

Here are some important questions and answers for CBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 3 – Metals and Non-metals:

  1. What are the physical properties of metals and non-metals? How are they different from each other?

Answer: Metals are typically shiny, malleable, ductile and good conductors of heat and electricity. Non-metals, on the other hand, are generally poor conductors of heat and electricity, brittle and have low melting and boiling points.

  1. What is the reactivity series of metals? How is it useful in predicting the reactivity of metals?

Answer: The reactivity series is a list of metals arranged in order of decreasing reactivity. It helps us predict the reactivity of a metal with other substances. For example, a metal higher in the reactivity series will displace a metal lower in the series from its compound.

  1. Explain the process of extraction of metals from their ores.

Answer: Extraction of metals from their ores involves various processes like crushing, grinding, roasting, smelting, refining, etc. The process depends on the nature of the ore and the metal. For example, metals like copper and iron are extracted from their ores through reduction while metals like zinc and aluminum are extracted through electrolysis.

  1. Why do metals corrode? How can corrosion be prevented?

Answer: Metals corrode due to chemical reactions with oxygen and moisture. Corrosion can be prevented by using coatings, galvanization, sacrificial protection, etc.

  1. Give an example of each of the following:

a) A metal that is a good conductor of electricity Answer: Copper

b) A non-metal that is a good conductor of electricity Answer: Graphite

c) A metal that is soft and can be cut with a knife Answer: Sodium

d) A non-metal that is ductile Answer: Carbon

  1. Name two metals which are extracted by the electrolytic reduction process.

Answer: Aluminum and magnesium

  1. Write the chemical equation of the reaction that takes place when iron reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid.

Answer: Fe + 2HCl → FeCl2 + H2

  1. Why do we apply a coating of zinc on iron? Explain with the help of an example.

Answer: We apply a coating of zinc on iron to prevent it from corrosion. Zinc acts as a sacrificial anode and corrodes instead of iron. This process is called galvanization. An example is the galvanized iron used in roofing and fencing.

  1. Write the name and formula of the product formed when magnesium reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid.

Answer: Magnesium chloride and hydrogen gas are formed. The chemical equation is Mg + 2HCl → MgCl2 + H2.

  1. What are the uses of metals and non-metals in our daily lives?

Answer: Metals have many uses in our daily lives, such as in construction, electrical wiring, transportation, etc. Non-metals like carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen have important roles in biological processes.

Here are some MCQs for CBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 3 – Metals and Non-metals:

Which of the following is not a physical property of metals?
a) Shiny
b) Malleable
c) Poor conductor of heat and electricity
d) Ductile
Answer: c) Poor conductor of heat and electricity

Which of the following non-metals is not a gas at room temperature?
a) Oxygen
b) Nitrogen
c) Carbon
d) Chlorine
Answer: c) Carbon

The reactivity of metals increases as we move:
a) Up the group
b) Down the group
c) Left to right across the period
d) Right to left across the period
Answer: b) Down the group

Which of the following is not a metal?
a) Calcium
b) Sodium
c) Carbon
d) Iron
Answer: c) Carbon

Which metal is extracted by the electrolytic reduction process?
a) Gold
b) Copper
c) Aluminum
d) Zinc
Answer: c) Aluminum

What is the name of the process used to extract metals by heating the ores in the presence of air?
a) Electrolysis
b) Smelting
c) Refining
d) Reduction
Answer: b) Smelting

Which metal is used for making electrical wires?
a) Silver
b) Copper
c) Aluminum
d) Iron
Answer: b) Copper

Which of the following is a non-metal?
a) Sodium
b) Calcium
c) Nitrogen
d) Magnesium
Answer: c) Nitrogen

What is the chemical formula of rust?
a) FeO
b) Fe2O3
c) Fe(OH)2
d) Fe(OH)3
Answer: b) Fe2O3

Which gas is produced when a metal reacts with an acid?
a) Oxygen
b) Nitrogen
c) Carbon dioxide
d) Hydrogen
Answer: d) Hydrogen

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