CBSE Class 10 Notes Social Science Geography Chapter 7 Lifelines of National Economy

Chapter 7 of CBSE Class 10 Social Science Geography is “Lifelines of National Economy”. In this chapter, students learn about the different modes of transport that are used for the movement of goods and people. They also study the importance of transportation in the development of the economy. Here are the key points covered in this chapter:

  1. Transportation is the movement of goods and people from one place to another. It is an important component of the economy as it helps in the distribution of goods and services.
  2. The different modes of transport include roadways, railways, waterways, airways, and pipelines. Each mode of transport has its advantages and disadvantages, and they are used based on the type of goods, distance, and cost.
  3. Roadways are the most important mode of transport in India, as they provide last-mile connectivity to people and goods. The National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) is responsible for the development and maintenance of the national highways.
  4. Railways are another important mode of transport in India, as they provide an efficient and cost-effective way of transporting goods and people across the country. Indian Railways is the largest railway network in Asia and the second-largest in the world.
  5. Waterways are used for the transportation of bulky goods and are the cheapest mode of transport. The National Waterways Act was passed in 2016 to develop and maintain the waterways in India.
  6. Airways are used for the transportation of goods and people over long distances, but they are expensive compared to other modes of transport. The Airports Authority of India (AAI) is responsible for the development and maintenance of airports in India.
  7. Pipelines are used for the transportation of crude oil, natural gas, and petroleum products. They are the safest and most efficient mode of transport for these products.
  8. The Golden Quadrilateral, North-South Corridor, East-West Corridor, and National Waterways are the major transport corridors in India that connect different parts of the country.
  9. The development of transport infrastructure is essential for the growth of the economy, as it facilitates trade, commerce, and industry. The government has taken several initiatives to improve the transport infrastructure in the country, such as the Bharatmala Pariyojana and Sagarmala Programme.
  10. The transport sector also has an impact on the environment, as it contributes to air and noise pollution. The government has taken several measures to reduce the environmental impact of transport, such as the use of cleaner fuels, promotion of electric vehicles, and the development of green transport corridors.

By studying this chapter, students will understand the importance of transportation in the development of the economy and the different modes of transport that are used for the movement of goods and people. They will also learn about the major transport corridors in India and the impact of the transport sector on the environment.

CBSE Class 10 Important Questions Social Science Geography Chapter 7 Lifelines of National Economy

Here are some important questions for CBSE Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 7 “Lifelines of National Economy”:

  1. What is transportation and why is it important for the economy?
  2. What are the different modes of transport used in India?
  3. What is the importance of roadways in India and who is responsible for their development and maintenance?
  4. How has the development of railways helped in the growth of the economy in India?
  5. What are the advantages and disadvantages of waterways as a mode of transport?
  6. Why are airways expensive compared to other modes of transport and who is responsible for the development of airports in India?
  7. What are pipelines and what products are transported through them?
  8. What are the major transport corridors in India and how have they helped in the development of the economy?
  9. What initiatives has the government taken to improve the transport infrastructure in the country?
  10. What is the impact of the transport sector on the environment and what measures has the government taken to reduce its environmental impact?

CBSE Class 10 Important Questions Answers Social Science Geography Chapter 7 Lifelines of National Economy

Here are the answers to some important questions for CBSE Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 7 “Lifelines of National Economy”:

What is transportation and why is it important for the economy?
Answer: Transportation refers to the movement of goods and people from one place to another. It is important for the economy as it helps in the distribution of goods and services, provides employment opportunities, and facilitates trade and commerce.

What are the different modes of transport used in India?
Answer: The different modes of transport used in India are roadways, railways, waterways, airways, and pipelines.

What is the importance of roadways in India and who is responsible for their development and maintenance?
Answer: Roadways are the most important mode of transport in India as they connect villages, towns, and cities to each other. They are responsible for their development and maintenance of roadways in India lies with the state public works departments and the National Highways Authority of India (NHAI).

How has the development of railways helped in the growth of the economy in India?
Answer: The development of railways has helped in the growth of the economy in India as it has facilitated the movement of goods and people across long distances, provided employment opportunities, and helped in the development of industries and trade.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of waterways as a mode of transport?
Answer: The advantages of waterways as a mode of transport are that it is cheap, can carry heavy loads, and is environmentally friendly. The disadvantages are that it is slow, can be affected by weather conditions, and requires a large infrastructure to operate.

Why are airways expensive compared to other modes of transport and who is responsible for the development of airports in India?
Answer: Airways are expensive compared to other modes of transport as they require a large infrastructure to operate, including airports, airplanes, and air traffic control systems. The development of airports in India is the responsibility of the Airports Authority of India (AAI).

What are pipelines and what products are transported through them?
Answer: Pipelines are long tubes made of steel or plastic used to transport liquids and gases. In India, pipelines are used to transport crude oil, petroleum products, natural gas, and water.

What are the major transport corridors in India and how have they helped in the development of the economy?
Answer: The major transport corridors in India are the Golden Quadrilateral, North-South Corridor, East-West Corridor, and National Waterways 1. They have helped in the development of the economy by facilitating the movement of goods and people across different parts of the country, reducing transportation costs, and promoting trade and commerce.

What initiatives has the government taken to improve the transport infrastructure in the country?
Answer: The government has taken several initiatives to improve the transport infrastructure in the country, such as the Bharatmala Project, Sagarmala Project, UDAN Scheme, and the National Highway Development Project (NHDP).

What is the impact of the transport sector on the environment and what measures has the government taken to reduce its environmental impact?
Answer: The transport sector has a significant impact on the environment due to air pollution, noise pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. To reduce its environmental impact, the government has taken measures such as promoting the use of electric vehicles, implementing emission norms for vehicles, and developing green transportation corridors.

CBSE Class 10 Important Questions Answers MCQs Social Science Geography Chapter 7 Lifelines of National Economy

Here are some MCQs with answers for CBSE Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 7 “Lifelines of National Economy”:

Which of the following is not a mode of transport in India?
(a) Roadways
(b) Railways
(c) Airways
(d) Oceans
Answer: (d) Oceans

Which is the most important mode of transport in India?
(a) Railways
(b) Waterways
(c) Roadways
(d) Airways
Answer: (c) Roadways

Which authority is responsible for the development and maintenance of National Highways in India?
(a) State Public Works Department
(b) National Highways Authority of India (NHAI)
(c) Ministry of Road Transport and Highways
(d) Indian Railways
Answer: (b) National Highways Authority of India (NHAI)

Which of the following is not an advantage of railways as a mode of transport?
(a) Fast and efficient
(b) Can carry heavy loads
(c) Environmentally friendly
(d) Provides employment opportunities
Answer: (c) Environmentally friendly

Which is the fastest mode of transport in India?
(a) Roadways
(b) Railways
(c) Airways
(d) Waterways
Answer: (c) Airways

Which of the following products are not transported through pipelines in India?
(a) Crude oil
(b) Natural gas
(c) Water
(d) Iron ore
Answer: (d) Iron ore

Which of the following projects is not related to the development of the transport infrastructure in India?
(a) Bharatmala Project
(b) Sagarmala Project
(c) Swachh Bharat Abhiyan
(d) UDAN Scheme
Answer: (c) Swachh Bharat Abhiyan

Which of the following measures has the government taken to reduce the environmental impact of the transport sector?
(a) Promoting the use of electric vehicles
(b) Implementing emission norms for vehicles
(c) Developing green transportation corridors
(d) All of the above
Answer: (d) All of the above

Which of the following transport corridors connects the four major cities of Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, and Kolkata?
(a) Golden Quadrilateral
(b) North-South Corridor
(c) East-West Corridor
(d) National Waterways 1
Answer: (a) Golden Quadrilateral

Which of the following transport corridors connects Srinagar to Kanyakumari?
(a) Golden Quadrilateral
(b) North-South Corridor
(c) East-West Corridor
(d) None of the above
Answer: (b) North-South Corridor

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 7 Lifelines of National Economy

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Geography Chapter 7 Lifelines of National Economy

Question-1
State any three merits of roadways.
Solution:
The growing importance of road transport is rooted in the following reasons:

  1. The construction cost of roadways is much lower than that of the railways.
  2. Its maintenance is also cheap and easy.
  3. Roads can be built in mountainous areas. The roads can traverse comparatively more dissected and undulating topography.
  4. Roads can negotiate higher gradients of slopes and as such can traverse mountains such as the Himalayas.
  5. Road transport is economical in the transportation of a few persons and a relatively smaller amount of goods over short distances.
  6. It provides door-to-door service, which results in a lower cost of loading and unloading.
  7. It is used as a feeder to other modes of transport such as they provide a link between railway stations, air, and seaports.
  8. Road transport connects fields with markets and factories.
  9. Road transport is useful for the transport of perishable commodities.

Question-2:
Where and why is rail transport the most convenient means of transportation?
Solution:

  1. Railways can transport larger number of goods and passengers over long distances at an economical cost. Hence, railways are the most convenient means of transport in the vast northern plains of India.
  2. The flat terrain, dense population, rich agricultural resources and greater industrial activity have favoured the development of railways in this region.
  3. The northern plains, therefore, have the densest railway network.
  4. Railways have accelerated the development of industry and agriculture in this region
    by providing quick availability of raw materials and distributing the finished products to the markets.
  5. However, in spite of the fact that railways is the most convenient means of transportation in northern plains, a large number of rivers requiring construction of bridges across their wide beds posed some obstacles.

Question-3
What is the significance of the border roads?
Solution:
The significance of Border Roads is as mentioned below :

  1. The Border Roads are vital road link along the frontiers of our country.
  2. These roads are of strategic importance.
  3. These roads have improved accessibility in areas of difficult terrain mainly in the northern and northeastern border areas.
  4. They have played a major role in the economic development of these areas.
  5. These roads are constructed and maintained by the Border Roads Organisation a government of India undertaking which was established in 1960.

Question-4
What is meant by trade? What is the difference between international and local trade?
Solution:
Trade, international and local trade :
(a) The exchange of goods among people, states, and countries is known as trade.
(b) Difference between international and local trade is as given below :

International TradeLocal trade
 (1) The exchange of commodities between two or more countries is termed as international trade.(2) It may take place through sea, air or land routes.(3) Export and import are the components of international trade.(4) Advancement of international trade of a country is an index to its economic prosperity. It is, therefore, considered the economic barometer for a country.(5) The international trade leads to the earning of foreign exchange and benefits for the traders and .exporters in the country. (1) Local trade is carried within cities,   towns  or villages. Exchange of items takes place in local markets where items of local needs are catered to.(2) Local trade mainly takes place through roads, railways, or inland waterways.(3) Sale and purchase are the components of local trade.(4) Advancement of local trade is a sign of   economic prosperity of the local people.(5) It does not earn foreign exchange but helps in the fulfillment of the needs of the people.

Question-5
Why are the means of transportation and communication called the lifelines of a nation and its economy?
Solution:
Today, we are living in the age of communication, using the telephone, television, films, and the Internet. Even books, magazines and newspapers are important means of communication. Various means of transport and communication have reduced distances, bringing the world closer. Modern life is so complex that one has to depend on others. The same is true of the countries as well. No country today can prosper without the co-operation and assistance of others. This requires the movement of goods and materials between countries. Trade provides us with our necessities and also adds to the amenities and comfort of our life. We may also notice that they are rightly called the lifelines of our national economy.
Question-6
Write a note on the changing nature of international trade in the last fifteen years.
Solution:
The nature of international trade in the last fifteen years has changed due to, globalization. Earlier bilateral agreements were made to conduct trade between two countries.

But through globalization, an effort has been made to integrate national economies with the world economy. Now producers from outside countries can sell their goods and services in other countries. Globalisation includes the movement of capital as well as workers from one country to another country. The restrictions on the import of goods have been removed. Under World Trade

The organization, efforts are being made to have multi-lateral agreements for international trade. WTO is regulating the international trade of goods as well as services. Thus international trade has undergone a sea change. The export of agriculture and allied products, ores, minerals, gems, jewellary, chemicals and allied products, engineering goods, and petroleum products have increased. On the other hand import of petroleum and petroleum products, pearls and precious stones, inorganic chemicals, coal, coke have increased too.

The exchange of commodities and goods have been superseded by the exchange of information and knowledge. India has emerged as a software giant at the international level. It is earning large foreign exchange through the export of information technology because of its fast-growing Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) sector.

Multiple Choice Questions

NCERT Questions
1. Which one of the following states has the highest road density? [All India 2012]
(a) Goa
(b) Kerala
(c) Karnataka
(d) Gujarat

2. Which one of the following is an inland riverine port? [Delhi 2012]
(a) Kandla
(b) Kolkata
(c) Mumbai
(d) Tuticorin

3. Which one of the following means of transport is used for carrying solids in a slurry form? [Foreign 2012]
(a) Trucks
(b) Railways
(c) Pipelines
(d) Ships

4. Which one of the following groups of cities is connected by National Highway No. 2? [CBSE CCE 2012]
(a) Delhi – Amritsar
(b) Delhi – Mumbai
(c) Delhi – Kolkata
(d) Varanasi – KanniyaKumari

5. Which one of the following National Highways is the longest in India? [CBSE CCE 2012]
(a) NH-1
(b) NH-8
(c) NH-7
(d) NH – 24

6. Which of the following state has the lowest density of roads? [CBSE CCE 2012]
(a) Assam
(b) Jammu and Kashmir
(c) Goa
(d) Rajasthan

7. Which port was develop as a subsidiary port in order to retrieve the growing pressure on the Kolkata port? [CBSE CCE 2012]
(a) Haldia
(b) Paradeep
(c) Kandla
(d) Tuticorin

8. The first class mail includes which one of the following? [Delhi 2011]
(a) Book packets
(b) Registered newspapers
(c) Envelopes and cards
(d) Periodicals and journals

9. By whom are Super Highways being implemented? [Foreign 2011]
(a) CPWD
(b) BRO
(c) NHAI
(d) PWD

10. Which one of the following major ports has been developed to decongest Kolkata port ? [All India 2011]
(a) Kandla
(b) Haldia
(c) Paradip
(d) Marmagao

11. Which two of the following extreme locations are connected by the East-West Corridor ?
(a) Mumbai and Nagpur
(b) Silchar and Porbandar
(c) Mumbai and Kolkata
(d) Nagpur and Siliguri

12. Which mode of transportation reduces trans¬shipment losses and delays ?
(a) Railways
(b) Roadways
(c) Pipeline
(d) Waterways

13. Which one of the following states is not connected with the H.V.J. pipeline?
(a) Madhya Pradesh
(b) Maharashtra
(c) Gujarat
(d) Uttar Pradesh

14. Which one of the following ports is the deepest land-locked and well-protected port along the east coast ?
(a) Chennai
(b) Paradip
(c) Tuticorin
(d) Vishakhapatnam

15. Which one of the following terms is used to describe trade between two or more countries ?
(a) Internal trade
(b) International trade
(c) External trade
(d) Local trade

Additional Questions
16. National Highway-8 connects
(a) Delhi-Bangalore
(b) Chennai-Kolkata
(c) Delhi-Mumbai
(d) Mumbai-Chennai.

17. Indian railways are divided into ………………. zones
(a) 20
(b) 9
(c) 16
(d) 18

18. The longest pipeline connects
(a) Hazira to Kanpur
(b) Saiaya to Jalandhar
(c) Hazira to Jagdishpur
(d) Koyali to Haldia.

19. The total length of Inland navigation waterways of India is
(a) 3,700 km.
(b) 14,500 km.
(c) 7,500 km.
(d) 14,000 km.

20. India’s international trade mainly takes place through
(a) Railways
(b) Seas and oceans
(c) Airways
(d) Roadways

21. The people who make the products come to the consumers by transportation are called ……………
(a) Businessman
(b) Retailers
(c) Traders
(d) Industrialists

22. Which one of the following does not belong to land transport ?
(a) Roads
(b) Railways
(c) Airways
(d) Pipelines

23. Who maintains the District Roads ?
(a) District Magistrate
(b) Municipality
(c) Village Panchayat
(d) Zila Parishad

24. Which one of the following states has the lowest road density ?
(a) Rajasthan
(b) Jammu & Kashmir
(c) Arunachal Pradesh
(d) Kerala

25. The first train was steamed off from
(a) Mumbai to Kalyan
(b) Mumbai to Delhi
(c) Mumbai to Thane
(d) Mumbai to Satara

26. Which one of the following rivers is declared as National Waterway No.1?
(a) Indus
(b) Brahmaputra
(c) Godavari
(d) Ganga

27. Nedimbacherry International Airport is located in which one of the following states ?
(a) Tamil Nadu
(b) Andhra Pradesh
(c) Kerala
(d) Karnataka

28. Raja Sansi International Airport is located in which state?
(a) Jammu & Kashmir
(b) Punjab
(c) Himachal Pradesh
(d) Haryana

29. Which one of the following is not the means of mass communication ?
(a) Cards and envelopes
(b) Radio
(c) Newspaper
(d) Films

30. In which language are maximum number of newspapers published in India?
(a) English
(b) Malayalam
(c) Hindi
(d) Marathi

31. The total network of India’s roadways is about
(a) 2.5 km
(b) 3.5 km
(c) 5.5 million km
(d) 2.3 million km

32. Which one of the following is the longest national highway ?
(a) NH-1
(b) NH-2
(c) NH-5
(d) NH-7

33. The total network of Indian railways is …………..
(a) 60,000 km.
(b) 52,000 km.
(c) 63,221 km.
(d) 65,000 km.

34. Which one of the following ports has a natural harbour and a rich hinterland ?
(a) Chennai
(b) Vishakhapatnam
(c) Paradip
(d) Tuticorin

35. Which one of the following is contributing to large amount of foreign exchange ?
(a) Export of gold Jewellery
(b) Export of petroleum products
(c) Export of engineering goods
(d) Export of information technology

36. The northern terminal city of North-South corridor is
(a) Jammu
(b) Srinagar
(c) Uri
(d) Kanniyakumari

37. Super highways are constructed and maintained by
(a) Central Public Works Department
(b) National Highway Authority of India
(c) Road Transport Corporation of India
(d) State Public Works Department

38. Which one of the following pairs is not correctly matched ?

Column IColumn II
(a)First port(i) Kandla
(b)Biggest port(ii) Mumbai
(c)A port located at the entrance of a lagoon(iii) Tuticorin
(d)An inland riverine port(iv) Kolkata
(e)Oldest artificial port(v) Chennai

39. The air transport was nationalised in ……………
(a) 1950
(b) 1975
(c) 1953
(d) 1990

40. Which one of the following is a subsidiary port of Mumbai ?
(a) Tuticorin
(b) Jawaharlal Nehru
(c) Haldia
(d) Vishakhapatnam

41. What is the name given to the International Airport at Kolkata ?
(a) Jawaharlal Nehru
(b) Meenam Bakkam
(c) Rajiv Gandhi
(d) Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose

42. STD refers to
(a) Suburban Telephone dialing
(b) Subscriber Trunk Dialing
(c) Social Telephone Distributor
(d) Speed Telephone Dialing

43. Which one of the following countries has the largest telecom network in Asia ?
(a) China
(b) Japan
(c) Pakistan
(d) India

44. Which one of the following countries is the largest producer of feature films in the world ?
(a) USA
(b) France
(c) Brazil
(d) India

45. Difference between the total value of exports and imports is called …………….
(a) Balance of Payment
(b) Balance of Trade
(c) Surplus Budget
(d) Deficit Balance

46. Which one of the following commodities does not belong to items of export ?
(a) Gems and jewellery
(b) Agriculture and allied products
(c) Fertilizers
(d) Engineering Goods

47. How many people are directly engaged in tourism industry ?
(a) 10 million
(b) 20 million
(c) 15 million
(d) 25 million

ANSWERS
NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 7 Lifelines of National Economy MCQs Answers

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