CBSE Class 10 Notes & Important Questions Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Water Resources

CBSE Class 10 Notes & Important Questions Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Water Resources

CBSE Class 10 Notes Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Water Resources

CBSE Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 – Water Resources

Introduction: Water is a crucial natural resource that is essential for the survival of all living beings. It is a limited resource and its availability varies from place to place and time to time. In this chapter, we will learn about the distribution of water resources in India, the uses of water resources, the problems associated with water scarcity, and the measures taken to conserve water resources.

Section 1: Sources of Water

  1. Surface Water: Surface water is the water that is found on the earth’s surface in the form of rivers, lakes, ponds, and oceans. In India, the major rivers are the Ganga, Brahmaputra, Indus, and Mahanadi.
  2. Groundwater: Groundwater is the water that is stored below the earth’s surface in the soil and rock formations. It is a major source of water for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes.
  3. Rainwater: Rainwater is an important source of freshwater. In areas with low rainfall, rainwater harvesting techniques are used to collect and store rainwater for later use.

Section 2: Uses of Water Resources

  1. Domestic Use: Domestic use refers to the use of water for household purposes such as drinking, cooking, and washing.
  2. Agricultural Use: Agricultural use refers to the use of water for irrigation purposes. Agriculture is the largest consumer of water in India.
  3. Industrial Use: Industrial use refers to the use of water in industries for various purposes such as cooling, cleaning, and processing.
  4. Hydroelectric Power Generation: Water resources are also used to generate hydroelectric power.

Section 3: Water Scarcity and Conservation

  1. Water Scarcity: Water scarcity is a situation where the demand for water exceeds the available supply. It is a major problem in India, especially in the arid and semi-arid regions.
  2. Causes of Water Scarcity: The causes of water scarcity include increasing population, overuse of water resources, climate change, and pollution of water bodies.
  3. Water Conservation: Water conservation refers to the practice of using water efficiently and reducing wastage. Some measures for water conservation include rainwater harvesting, reuse of wastewater, and efficient irrigation techniques.
  4. Water Management: Water management refers to the planning and management of water resources to ensure their sustainable use. It involves the development of water supply systems, regulation of water use, and the management of water resources in a way that benefits all stakeholders.

Conclusion: Water is a precious resource that needs to be conserved and managed sustainably. It is essential for the survival of all living beings, and its scarcity can have severe consequences. It is important for individuals, communities, and governments to work together to ensure the efficient use and conservation of water resources.

CBSE Class 10 Important Questions Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Water Resources

  1. What are the major rivers in India?
  2. What is groundwater and how is it important?
  3. Which sector consumes the largest amount of water in India?
  4. What is water scarcity and what are the causes of it?
  5. How can rainwater harvesting help in water conservation?
  6. What is water management and why is it important?
  7. What are the problems associated with the pollution of water bodies?
  8. What is the impact of climate change on water resources?
  9. What measures can be taken to conserve water resources in urban areas?
  10. What are the advantages and disadvantages of building dams for water conservation?

CBSE Class 10 Important Questions Answers Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Water Resources

What are the major rivers in India?
Answer: The major rivers in India are the Ganga, Brahmaputra, Indus, and Mahanadi.

What is groundwater and how is it important?
Answer: Groundwater is the water that is stored below the earth’s surface in the soil and rock formations. It is important as a major source of water for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes.

Which sector consumes the largest amount of water in India?
Answer: Agriculture is the largest consumer of water in India.

What is water scarcity and what are the causes of it?
Answer: Water scarcity is a situation where the demand for water exceeds the available supply. The causes of water scarcity include increasing population, overuse of water resources, climate change, and pollution of water bodies.

How can rainwater harvesting help in water conservation?
Answer: Rainwater harvesting can help in water conservation by collecting and storing rainwater for later use. This can reduce the demand for freshwater sources and help in meeting the water requirements in times of scarcity.

What is water management and why is it important?
Answer: Water management refers to the planning and management of water resources to ensure their sustainable use. It is important as it helps in ensuring the availability of water resources for various purposes and prevents their overuse or depletion.

What are the problems associated with the pollution of water bodies?
Answer: The pollution of water bodies can lead to various problems such as the contamination of freshwater sources, the loss of aquatic biodiversity, and the spread of waterborne diseases.

What is the impact of climate change on water resources?
Answer: Climate change can lead to changes in the rainfall patterns and the availability of water resources. It can also cause the melting of glaciers and the rise in sea levels, leading to further depletion of freshwater sources.

What measures can be taken to conserve water resources in urban areas?
Answer: Measures such as rainwater harvesting, reuse of wastewater, and the use of efficient water supply systems and appliances can help in conserving water resources in urban areas.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of building dams for water conservation?
Answer: The advantages of building dams include the availability of water for various purposes such as irrigation and hydroelectric power generation. The disadvantages include the displacement of people and the loss of habitats, and the impact on the natural flow of rivers and their ecosystems.

CBSE Class 10 Important Questions Answers MCQs Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Water Resources

Which of the following is the largest consumer of water in India?
a) Domestic sector
b) Industrial sector
c) Agriculture sector
d) Service sector
Answer: c) Agriculture sector

Which river is also known as the Brahmaputra in India?
a) Ganga
b) Yamuna
c) Indus
d) Tsangpo
Answer: d) Tsangpo

Which of the following is a renewable source of water?
a) Groundwater
b) Surface water
c) Glaciers
d) All of the above
Answer: d) All of the above

What is the major cause of water scarcity in India?
a) Overuse of water resources
b) Climate change
c) Pollution of water bodies
d) All of the above
Answer: d) All of the above

What is the main purpose of rainwater harvesting?
a) To reduce the demand for freshwater sources
b) To increase the availability of groundwater
c) To prevent floods
d) To generate hydroelectric power
Answer: a) To reduce the demand for freshwater sources

What is the impact of climate change on water resources?
a) Increased availability of water
b) Changes in rainfall patterns
c) Reduced evaporation of water bodies
d) All of the above
Answer: b) Changes in rainfall patterns

Which of the following is a method of water conservation in urban areas?
a) Building dams
b) Constructing canals
c) Rainwater harvesting
d) None of the above
Answer: c) Rainwater harvesting

What is the main disadvantage of building dams for water conservation?
a) The displacement of people
b) The loss of habitats
c) The impact on the natural flow of rivers and their ecosystems
d) All of the above
Answer: d) All of the above

Which of the following is a waterborne disease?
a) Malaria
b) Dengue fever
c) Cholera
d) None of the above
Answer: c) Cholera

Which of the following is a non-renewable source of water?
a) Groundwater
b) Surface water
c) Glaciers
d) Fossil water
Answer: d) Fossil water

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Water Resources

Water Resource NCERT Class 10 SST Geography NCERT Solutions

Question-1
Based on the information given below classify each of the situations as ‘suffering from water scarcity’ or ‘not suffering from water scarcity’ Region with high annual rainfall
Solution:
‘not suffering from water scarcity’

Question-2:
Based on the information given below classify each of the situations as ‘suffering from water scarcity’ or ‘not suffering from water scarcity’. Region having high annual rainfall and large population
Solution:
‘not suffering from water scarcity’

Question-3
Based on the information given below classify each of the situations as ‘suffering from water scarcity’ or ‘not suffering from water scarcity’ Region having high annual rainfall but water is highly polluted.
Solution:
‘suffering from water scarcity’

Question-4.
Based on the information given below classify each of the situations as ‘suffering from water scarcity’ or ‘not suffering from water scarcity’ Region having low rainfall and low population.
Solution:
‘suffering from water scarcity’

Question-5
Which one of the following statements is not an argument in favour of multipurpose river projects?
(a) Multi-purpose projects bring water to those areas, which suffer from water scarcity.
(b) Multi-purpose projects by regulating water flow helps to control floods.
(c) Multi-purpose projects lead to large-scale displacements and loss of livelihood.
(d) Multi-purpose projects generate electricity for our industries and our homes.
Solution:
(a) Multi-purpose projects bring water to those areas, which suffer from water scarcity.

Question-6
Here is a false statement. Identify the mistakes and rewrite them correctly.
Multiplying urban centers with large and dense populations and urban lifestyles have helped in proper utilisation of water resources.
Solution:
Multiplying urban centers with large and dense populations and urban lifestyles have helped in improper utilisation of water resources.

Question-7.
Here is a false statement. Identify the mistakes and rewrite them correctly. Regulating and damming of rivers does not affect the river’s natural flow and its sediment flow.
Solution:
Regulating and damming of rivers affect the river’s natural flow and its sediment flow.

Question-8:
Here is a false statement. Identify the mistakes and rewrite them correctly.
In Gujarat, the Sabarmati basin farmers were agitated when higher priority was given to water supply in urban areas, particularly during droughts.
Solution:
In Gujarat, the Sabarmati basin farmers were not agitated when higher priority was given to water supply in urban areas, particularly during droughts.

Question-9:
Here is a false statement. Identify the mistakes and rewrite them correctly.
Today in Rajasthan, the practice of rooftop rainwater water harvesting has gained popularity despite high water availability due to the Rajasthan Canal.
Solution:
Today in Rajasthan, the practice of rooftop rainwater water harvesting has gained popularity despite low water availability due to the Rajasthan Canal.

Question-10:
Explain how water becomes a renewable resource.
Solution:
Three-fourth of the earth’s surface is covered with water, but only a small proportion of it accounts for freshwater that can be put to use. This freshwater is mainly obtained from surface run off and ground water that is continually being renewed and recharged through the hydrological cycle. All water moves within the hydrological cycle ensuring that water is a renewable resource.

NCERT Solutions For Class 10 SST Chapter 3 Question-11
What is water scarcity and what are its main causes?
Solution:
Water scarcity is the shortage of water but it is not only associated with regions having low rainfall or those that are drought-prone. The availability of water resources varies over space and time, mainly due to the variations in seasonal and annual precipitation, but water scarcity in most cases is caused by overexploitation, excessive use and unequal access to water among different social groups.

NCERT Solutions For Class 10 SST Chapter 3 Question-12:
Compare the advantages and disadvantages of multi-purpose river projects.
Solution:
Regulating and damming of rivers affect their natural flow causing poor sediment flow and excessive sedimentation at the bottom of the reservoir, resulting in rockier streambeds and poorer habitats for the rivers’ aquatic life. Dams also fragment rivers making it difficult for aquatic fauna to migrate, especially for spawning. It has great ecological consequences like salinisation of the soil. At the same time, it has transformed the social landscape i.e. increasing the social gap between the richer landowners and the landless poor.

The dams that were constructed to control floods have triggered floods due to sedimentation in the reservoir. Moreover, the big dams have mostly been unsuccessful in controlling floods at the time of excessive rainfall. It was also observed that the multi-purpose projects induced earthquakes, caused waterborne diseases and pests and pollution resulting from excessive use of water.

NCERT Solutions For Class 10 SST Chapter 3 Question-13:
Discuss how rainwater harvesting in semi-arid regions of Rajasthan is carried out.
Solution:
In the semi-arid and arid regions of Rajasthan, particularly in Bikaner, Phalodi and Barmer, almost all the houses traditionally had underground tanks or tankas for storing drinking water. The tanks could be as large as a big room. The tankas were part of the well-developed rooftop rainwater harvesting system and were built inside the main house or the courtyard. They were connected to the sloping roofs of the houses through a pipe. Rain falling on the rooftops would travel down the pipe and was stored in these underground ‘tankas’. The first spell of rain was usually not collected, as this would clean the roofs and the pipes. The rainwater from the subsequent showers was then collected.

The rainwater can be stored in the tankas till the next rainfall making it an extremely reliable source of drinking water when all other sources are dried up, particularly in the summers. Rainwater, or palar pani, as commonly referred to in these parts, is considered the purest form of natural water. Many houses constructed underground rooms adjoining the ‘tanka’ to beat the summer heat as it would keep the room cool.

NCERT Solutions For Class 10 SST Chapter 3 Question-14
Describe how modern adaptations of traditional rainwater harvesting methods are being carried out to conserve and store water.
Solution:
Fortunately, in many parts of rural and urban India, rooftop rainwater harvesting is being successfully adapted to store and conserve water. In Gendathur, a remote backward village in Mysore, Karnataka, villagers have installed, in their household’s rooftop, rainwater-harvesting system to meet their water needs. Nearly 200 households have installed this system and the village has earned the rare distinction of being rich in rainwater. Rainwater harvesting is once again being conserved through modern adaptation. Rainwater running down from the roofs is not fed into drains. Instead it is piped into underground reservoirs.

Multiple Choice Questions

Previous Years’ Questions
1. Which one of the following is not the cause of water scarcity? [CBSE (CCE) 2011]
(a) Rapid growth of population
(b) Uneven distribution of water resources
(c) Constructions of dams and reserves
(d) Increase in demand

2. Which state has made roof top rainwater harvesting structure compulsory to all the houses across the state? [CBSE (CCE) 2011]
(a) Kerala
(b) Karnataka
(c) Tamil Nadu
(d) Andhra Pradesh

3. On which of the following rivers is Koyna dam built? [CBSE (CCE) 2011]
(a) Krishna
(b) Kaveri
(c) Ganga
(d) Mahanadi

4. Nagarjuna Sagar Dam is built on which river? [CBSE (CCE) 2011]
(a) Chenab
(b) Mahanadi
(c) Krishna
(d) Satluj

NCERT Questions
5. Which of the following statements is not an argument in favour of multi-purpose river projects ?
(a) Multi-purpose projects bring water to those areas which suffer from water scarcity.
(b) Multi-purpose projects by regulating water flow help to control floods.
(c) Multi-purpose projects lead to large scale displacements and loss of livelihood.
(d) Multi-purpose projects generate electricity for our industries and our homes.

Additional Questions
6. The first multi-purpose project of India was
(a) Sivasamudram
(b) Damodar Valley
(c) Hirakud
(d) Rajasthan Canal

7. Sardar Sarovar Dam is constructed on
(a) River Krishna
(b) River Mahanadi
(c) River Kaveri
(d) River Narmada

8. Rooftop rainwater harvesting system in Rajasthan is known as
(a) Guls
(b) Tankas
(c) Johads
(d) Baolis

9. Bamboo drip irrigation is common in the state of
(a) Rajasthan
(b) Madhya Pradesh
(c) Meghalaya
(d) Karnataka

10. Water is a renewable resource because
(a) it is being recycled by human beings.
(b) it is renewed and recharged through hydrological cycle.
(c) it is being renewed through reduction.
(d) it can be reused again.

11. How much of the earth’s surface is covered by water?
(a) 1/2
(b) 2/3
(c) 1/4
(d) 3/4

12. Oceans contain ………….. volume of water.
(a) 90 percent
(b) 75 percent
(c) 96.5 percent
(d) 98 percent

13. The amount of freshwater on the earth’s surface is
(a) 1.5 percent
(b) 2.5 percent
(c) 3 percent
(d) 5 percent

14. On which river is the Bhakra Nangal Dam located ?
(a) Jhelum
(b) Chambal
(c) Satluj
(d) Chenab

15. Hirakud dam is located in which one of the following states?
(a) Andhra Pradesh
(b) West Bengal
(c) Orissa
(d) Tamil Nadu

16. Mettur Dam is located on
(a) R. Krishna
(b) R. Mahanadi
(c) R. Narmada
(d) R. Kaveri

17. Which one of the following is not a source of freshwater ?
(a) Oceans
(b) Surface run off
(c) Ice-sheets
(d) Groundwater

18. What percentage of the global precipitation is received in India ?
(a) 2 percent
(b) 5 percent
(c) 4 percent
(d) 10 percent

19. Water scarcity occurs due to
(i) low rainfall in a region
(ii) large population
(iii) over-exploitation
(iv) unequal access
(a) (i) and (ii)
(b) (ii) and (iii)
(c) (i) and (iv)
(d) All of the above

20. Water scarcity is a serious problem in recent years mainly in
(a) Cities
(b) Rural areas
(c) Deserts
(d) Mountains

21. In India hydroelectric power contributes to what percentage of the total electricity produced ?
(a) 30 percent
(b) 22 percent
(c) 20 percent
(d) 40 percent

22. We need to conserve water because
(i) it will be exhausted.
(ii) it is needed for our livelihood and other economic activities.
(iii) it will ensure food security.
(iv) there is abundance of water.
(a) (i) and (ii)
(b) (ii) and (iii)
(c) (i), (ii) and (iii)
(d) (i) and (iv)

23. The diversion channels of the Western Himalayas are called
(a) Canals
(b) Inundation channels
(c) Kuls
(d) Khadins

24. Which of the following rivers is known as the ‘River of Sorrow’ ?
(a) Hugli
(b) Damodar
(c) Narmada
(d) Kosi

25. Nagarjuna Sagar Dam is located in the state of
(a) Orissa
(b) Karnataka
(c) Kerala
(d) Andhra Pradesh

26. In which state is the Tehri Dam located ?
(a) Himachal Pradesh
(b) Punjab
(c) Uttar Pradesh
(d) Uttarakhand

27. In semi arid regions of Rajasthan the traditional system of storing drinking water in underground tanks are called
(a) Dugwells
(b) Johads
(c) Tankas
(d) None of the above

28. Which of the following Indian rivers are the most polluted ?
(a) Ganga and Yamuna
(b) Ganga and Indus
(c) Godavari and Krishna
(d) Kosi and Damodar

29. Which one of the following statements is incorrect as regards to opposition against multi-purpose projects.
(a) Regulating and damming of rivers affected the natural flow.
(b) It has caused interstate river water disputes.
(c) It has increased the social gap between the rich land owners and the landless poor.
(d) They are successful in meeting many objectives.

30. Khadins and Johads are the rain fed storage structures of which of the following states ?
(a) Karnataka
(b) Assam
(c) Rajasthan
(d) Tamil Nadu

31. Which village in Karnataka has earned a rare distinction of being rich in rain water ?
(a) Tumkur
(b) Hosur
(c) Devana halli
(d) Gendathur

32. On which of the following rivers is the Salal Project located ?
(a) Luni
(b) Satluj
(c) Jhelum
(d) Chenab

33. By 2025 how many people will live in absolute water scarcity?
(a) 1 billion
(b) 5 billion
(c) 2 billion
(d) 6 billion

34. Which one of the following options are incorrect as regards to water scarcity in cities.
(i) Cities have low population
(ii) Increased consumption
(iii) Increased food production
(iv) They receive less rainfall
(a) (i) and (ii)
(b) (ii) and (iii)
(c) (i) and (iv)
(d) (iii) and (iv)

35. Which one of the following is not the example of Hydraulic structures in Ancient India ?
(a) Bhopal Lake
(b) Lake Hauz Kauz
(c) Construction of dams, Lakes
(d) Damodar Valley Project

ANSWERS
NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Water Resources MCQs Answers

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